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The ages 11 through 14 years are often referred to as early adolescence. These years are an exciting time of many varied and rapid changes. Your child grows taller and stronger and also starts to feel and think in more mature ways. You may feel amazed as you watch your child begin to turn into an adult. But this can be a confusing time for both kids and parents. Both must get used to the new person the child is becoming.
From ages 11 through 14, a child develops in four main areas:
Yearly doctor visits are important to detect problems and to make sure your adolescent is growing and developing as expected. During these visits, the doctor will do a physical exam and give your child any needed shots. The doctor will also ask questions about your child's friends, school, and activities to see how he or she is doing.
It is a good idea to give an adolescent some time alone with the doctor. This gives your child a chance to ask questions that he or she may not feel comfortable asking you.
Adolescents should also have yearly dental checkups to make sure their teeth are strong and healthy.
Teens need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years.
Call your doctor anytime you have a concern about your child's physical or emotional health, such as:
A call or visit to your child's doctor can help you keep a healthy outlook and know how to recognize a true problem. This may help relieve tension between you and your child.
Being the parent of an adolescent can be challenging. Even if your child pushes you away at times, you still play a very big role in your child's life. Try to stay positive and keep the lines of communication open. While it is good to let your child make decisions, realize that adolescents need and want limits that are fair and firm.
To promote healthy development:
Throughout these years, it is important to let adolescents know they are loved and accepted, no matter what happens, even if at times you don't agree with what they do or how they act.
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Rapidly changing bodies, confusion, excitement, new social situations, and increased reasoning abilities make ages 11 to 14 a thrilling and sometimes challenging time for children and parents. Watching your child gradually mature is an amazing process. It also can be puzzling for parents who may wonder during this transition, "Do I have a child or an adult?" Since neither is the case, you must continually renegotiate your relationship with and learn about your evolving adolescent.
Although each adolescent develops at his or her individual pace, general growth and development patterns can be grouped into four main categories.
The years 11 through 14 are exciting and confusing. Many parents have concerns about how their children will handle the many physical and emotional changes that usually happen during this time. Some of these common concerns include:
During this time of trial and error, offer open, positive communication while providing clear and fair rules and consistent guidance. You significantly influence your adolescent's habits and attitudes, choices, and adjustments to physical changes. But realize that your child's way of doing things does not have to exactly match your own.
Help your child identify important issues and be prepared for increasing responsibilities. Allow your child the freedom to figure things out in his or her own way within the boundaries you have set. Parents walk a fine line between respecting a teen's need for independence and privacy and making sure that he or she does not make mistakes that have lifelong consequences.
Promote your adolescent's physical development by doing the following:
Promote your adolescent's healthy emotional and social development by doing the following:
Promote your adolescent's cognitive development by doing the following:
Promote your adolescent's sensory and motor development by doing the following:
Your child's doctor can help you discuss difficult issues with your adolescent if you ever have trouble doing so on your own. Keep in mind that important subjects, such as sex, should be addressed long before you think your child will face them.
Talk to your child's doctor if you are concerned about your child's health or other issues. These issues may include:
Call a doctor or a mental health professional if your child develops behavioral problems or signs of mental health problems. Signs may include:
Routine checkups (usually once a year) allow your child's doctor to keep a close eye on your child's general health and development. You also can discuss any concerns you have during these appointments. It may help you to go with a prepared list of questions .
These checkups are important to detect problems and to see if your child is growing and developing as expected. The doctor will do a physical exam, suggest any needed shots (immunizations), and ask questions about your child's social, academic, relationship, and mental health status. For information about recommended shots, see the topics:
Beginning in adolescence, most doctors like to spend some time alone with your child during the visit. Although many state laws are vague about adolescents' and teens' rights to medical confidentiality, most doctors will clarify expectations with you and your child. Ideally, you will all agree that anything your child discusses privately with the doctor will remain confidential, with few exceptions. This gives your child an opportunity to talk to the doctor about any issue he or she may not feel comfortable in sharing with you.
Teens also need to have regular dental checkups and to be encouraged to brush and floss regularly.
Adolescents need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years.
Other Works Consulted
Cromer B, et al. (2011). Adolescent development. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 649–659. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Dweck CS, Master A (2009). Self-concept. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 427–435. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Garrison W, Felice ME (2009). Adolescence. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 62–73. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Hazen E, et al. (2008). Adolescent psychological development: A review. Pediatrics in Review, 29(5): 161–168.
O'Keeffe GS, et al. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4): 800–804.
Ozer EM, Irwin CE (2011). Psychological development. In CD Rudolph et al., eds., Rudolph's Pediatrics, 22nd ed., pp. 271–272. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Radzik M, et al. (2008). Common concerns of adolescents and their parents. In LS Neinstein et al., eds., Adolescent Health Care: A Practical Guide, 5th ed., pp. 969–972. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Sass A, et al. (2014). Adolescence. In WW Hay Jr et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, 22nd ed., pp. 117–157. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Strasburger VC (2009). Media. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 192–200. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Youngerblade LM, et al. (2009). Peers. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 152–158. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Current as of:
September 20, 2021
Author: Healthwise StaffMedical Review: Susan C. Kim MD - PediatricsJohn Pope MD - PediatricsKathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Current as of: September 20, 2021
Susan C. Kim MD - Pediatrics & John Pope MD - Pediatrics & Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
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