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This topic provides information about sudden kidney injury. If you are looking for information about long-term kidney disease, see the topic Chronic Kidney Disease.
Acute kidney injury (which used to be called acute renal failure) means that your kidneys have suddenly stopped working normally. Your kidneys remove waste products and help balance water and salt and other minerals (electrolytes) in your blood. When your kidneys stop working, waste products, fluids, and electrolytes build up in your body. This can cause problems that can be deadly.
Acute kidney injury has three main causes:
You have a greater chance of getting acute kidney injury if:
Symptoms of acute kidney injury may include:
Some people may not have any symptoms. And for people who are already quite ill, the problem that's causing the kidney injury may be causing other symptoms.
Acute kidney injury is most often diagnosed during a hospital stay for another cause. If you are already in the hospital, tests done for other problems may find your kidney problem.
If you're not in the hospital but have symptoms of kidney injury, your doctor will ask about your symptoms, what medicines you take, and what tests you have had. Your symptoms can help point to the cause of your kidney problem.
Blood and urine tests can check how well your kidneys are working. A chemistry screen can show if you have normal levels of sodium (salt), potassium, and calcium. You may also have an ultrasound. This imaging test lets your doctor see a picture of your kidneys.
Your doctor or a kidney specialist (nephrologist) will try to treat the problem that is causing your kidney injury. Treatment can vary widely, depending on the cause. For example, your doctor may need to restore blood flow to the kidneys, stop any medicines that may be causing the problem, or remove or bypass a blockage in the urinary tract.
At the same time, the doctor will try to:
You can help yourself heal by taking your medicines as your doctor tells you to. You also may need to follow a special diet to keep your kidneys from working too hard. You may need to limit sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. A dietitian can help you plan meals.
Doctors sometimes can fix the problems that cause kidney injury. The treatment takes a few days or weeks. These people's kidneys will work well enough for them to live normal lives.
But other people may have permanent kidney damage that leads to chronic kidney disease. A small number of them will need to have regular dialysis or a kidney transplant. Older people and those who are very sick from other health problems may not get better. People who die usually do so because of the health problem that caused their kidneys to fail.
Other Works Consulted
Kellum JA, et al. (2011). Acute kidney injury, search date December 2009. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Available online: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Acute Kidney Injury Work Group (2012). KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Kidney International Supplements, 2(1): 1–138. http://kdigo.org/home/guidelines/acute-kidney-injury/. Accessed January 9, 2015.
Lee BK, Vincenti FG (2013). Acute kidney injury and oliguria. In JW McAninch, TF Lue, eds., Smith and Tanagho's General Urology, 18th ed., pp. 540–544. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Current as of: August 12, 2019
Author: Healthwise StaffMedical Review: E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal MedicineAdam Husney, MD - Family MedicineKathleen Romito, MD - Family MedicineTushar J Vachharajani, MD, FASN, FACP - Nephrology
Current as of: August 12, 2019
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine & Tushar J Vachharajani, MD, FASN, FACP - Nephrology
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