Facts About the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis
Facts about the shoulder
The shoulder is made up of several layers, including the following:
Bones. These include the collarbone (clavicle), the shoulder blade (scapula), and the upper arm bone (humerus).
Joints. These facilitate movement and include the following:
Sternoclavicular joint. This is where the clavicle meets the sternum.
Acromioclavicular (AC) joint. This is where the clavicle meets the acromion.
Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint). A ball-and-socket joint that facilitates forward, circular, and backward movement of the shoulder.
Ligaments. A white, shiny, flexible band of fibrous tissue that holds joints together and connects the various bones, including the following:
The joint capsule is a group of ligaments that connect the humerus to the socket of the shoulder joint on the scapula to stabilize the shoulder and keep it from dislocating.
Ligaments that attach the clavicle to the acromion
Ligaments that connect the clavicle to the scapula by attaching to the coracoid process
Acromion. The roof (highest point) of the shoulder that is formed by a part of the scapula.
Tendons. The tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones. The rotator cuff tendons are a group of tendons that connect the deepest layer of muscles to the humerus.
Muscles. These help support and rotate the shoulder in many directions.
Bursa. A closed space between 2 moving surfaces that has a small amount of lubricating fluid inside; located between the rotator cuff muscle layer and the outer layer of large, bulky muscles.
Rotator cuff. Composed of tendons, the rotator cuff and associated muscles hold the ball tightly within the glenohumeral joint at the top of the upper arm bone (humerus).
Facts About the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis - WellSpan Health
Online Medical Reviewer: Gomez, Wanda, RN, Ph.D. Online Medical Reviewer: newMentor board-certified, academically affiliated clinician Last Review Date: 2013-11-03T00:00:00 Last Modified Date: 2013-11-07T00:00:00 Posting Date: 2008-11-30T00:00:00 Published Date: 2014-10-17T00:00:00 Last Review Date: 2007-03-30T00:00:00 © 2015 WellSpan Health. All Rights Reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional's instructions.